Birsent Karagaren passed through the youth system at PFC Lokomotiv Plovdiv. 2012 marked his first steps in professional football at FC Volov Shumen. From 2013 to 2017 he played for the teams of FC Vereya Stara Zagora, FC Etar Veliko Tarnovo and FC Dunav Russe.
In the summer of 2018 he rejoined Lokomotiv and in the very same season the team triumphed with the Bulgarian Cup. The trophy came back to Plovdiv again next year as the black-and-whites defeated CSKA-Sofia at the final (3:5 after penalties). The very successful 2019/20 season for Karagaren and Lokomotiv ended up as the black-and-whites won the Bulgarian Supercup.